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The research documented in this report was conducted as part of Phase VI of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Evaluation of Low-Cost Safety improvements Pooled Fund Study (ELCSI–PFS). The FHWA established this pooled fund study in 2005 to conduct research on the effectiveness of the safety improvements identified by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500 Guides as part of the implementation of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Strategic Highway Safety Plan. The ELCSI-PFS studies provide a crash modification factor (CMF) and benefit-cost (BC) economic analysis for each of the targeted safety strategies identified as priorities by the pooled fund member states.

The intent of the study was to isolate the effects of various low cost pavement treatments on roadway safety. This was a retrospective study for pavement safety performance, looking back at crash data both before and after treatments were installed. Both flexible and rigid pavement treatments were analyzed, with the majority typically used for pavement preservation or minor rehabilitation purposes. Although state highway agencies recognize that most of these treatments generally improve pavement friction, they are not typically installed explicitly for safety improvement. The one exception is high friction surfacing, which is typically applied as a spot safety treatment. Under this effort, CMFs and BC ratios were developed for various low-cost pavement treatments.

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